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Sunday, 16 August 2015

Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia - Para além do fator de impacto: O artigo científico e a disseminação de conhecimento em Medicina



Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia

versão impressa ISSN 0871-9721

Rev Port Imunoalergologia vol.23 no.2 Lisboa jun. 2015

 

EDITORIAL


Para além do fator de impacto:  O artigo científico e a disseminação de conhecimento em Medicina



João Fonseca



Unidade de Imunoalergologia, CUF Porto Hospital e Instituto

CINTESIS – Center for Health Technology and Services Research, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Secretario‑Geral da Sociedade Portuguesa de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica



Contacto



Uma
velha história sobre a publicação científica pode ser contada de forma
breve. Ao café, um médico diz ao outro: “Acabou de sair um artigo ótimo
que prova que nos doentes com … [escolha o leitor uma situação clínica]
é melhor … [intervenção terapêutica ou diagnóstica] do que … [outra
intervenção].”

O outro médico responde: “Isso até já a minha avó sabia!”

O primeiro médico comenta calmamente: “Foi pena a tua avó não ter publicado.”

O
artigo científico é um dos formatos de publicação de novos avanços do
conhecimento médico. Os processos de seleção editorial e de revisão por
pares são determinantes como forma mais valorizada de apresentação de
resultados de um trabalho de investigação em Medicina.

A
publicação de um artigo científico é hoje o modo mais visível e
persistente no tempo de disseminação desses resultados, tornando‑se
também uma montra dos autores e instituições que os produzem – a cereja
em cima do bolo dirão uns, os melhores bolos dirão outros.

Para
a afirmação e crescimento de uma área clínica é imprescindível uma
produção consistente e de qualidade de artigos científicos. Igualmente,
para a formação e actualização dos especialistas numa área clínica, a
preparação e realização de um trabalho publicado sob a forma de artigo é
um desafio e uma experiência educativa única.

Esta primazia
do artigo não significa que muitas outras formas de disseminação de
novo conhecimento clínico não sejam também necessárias e relevantes.
Pelo contrário as (boas) discussões entre colegas, as comunicações em
reuniões e congressos (e respetivos resumos), a divulgação em média não
especializados e em novos média ou as publicações sem revisão por pares,
como livros ou monografias, complementam e expandem as funções dos
artigos científicos.

Temos assistido a um crescimento
exponencial dos artigos científicos alimentado por fatores como o
aumento da investigação, os avanços tecnológicos ou mesmo o reforço da
importância do artigo científico. Em cerca de duas décadas passamos da
dificuldade de acesso a informação científica para a de imperiosidade de
escolha de entre a imensa quantidade de artigos científicos produzidos.

Hoje perguntamo‑nos como os procurar1
e como os selecionar. A seleção dependerá, seguramente, do motivo
porque queremos ler mas, de um modo geral, será seguro que os artigos
mais citados por outros autores terão um maior interesse. No entanto, só
passado demasiado tempo sabemos que artigos são mais citados.

O que sabemos é que artigos publicados em revistas que tem artigos muito citados têm habitualmente mais citações.

Estas
revistas são as mais prestigiadas, mais procuradas para publicação e
por isso mais exigentes na escolha dos artigos que publicam. Por
consequência, os artigos aí publicados tendem a ter mais qualidade e
importância, sendo por isso mais citados.

O Institute of Scientific Information(ISI) agora parte da Web of Science da Thomson Reuters, concebeu uma medida do impacto de uma revista utilizando o número de citações – o fator de impacto (FI).2
O FI contabiliza as citações feitas num dado ano a artigos publicados
nos dois anos anteriores nas revistas incluídas no Science Citation
Index, a base de dados mais exigente de indexação de revistas
científicas.

O cálculo do FI é o quociente entre o número de
citações que os artigos publicados na revista durante os dois anos
anteriores tiveram naquele ano e o número de artigos publicados – o FI
de 2014 da revista x é igual número de citações em 2014 dos artigos
publicados em 2012‑13 na revista x a dividir pelo número de artigos
publicados em 2012‑>13 na mesma revista. Simplificando poderíamos
dizer que um artigo publicado na revista Allergy, por exemplo, terá em média 6 citações nos 2 anos seguintes (Quadro 1). O FI de uma revista pode ser procurado no Journal of citations reports(JCR),3
um recurso pago da Thomson Reuters, a que as instituições portuguesas
têm acesso através da biblioteca do conhecimento online (B‑on.pt). Pelo
mês de junho de cada ano são publicados os FI do ano anterior. Em 2015
foi apresentada a 40.ª edição. A categoria Allergytem 24 revistas
indexadas e o fator de impacto agregado dessas 22 revistas é 4047,
correspondendo ao 22.º lugar das 232 categorias de todas as áreas
científicas que fazem parte do JCR. No Quadro 1 estão listadas por ordem decrescente as dez revistas com maior fator de impacto indexadas na categoria Allergy do JCR em 2014.


O FI é muito utilizado por ser uma medida simples, fácil de entender e
que mostrou o seu valor o longo de várias décadas. No entanto, como não
há medidas perfeitas, têm sido feitas muitas críticas ao FI4 e à sua
utilização para fins para os quais não foi desenvolvido. O FI não pode
ser utilizado para avaliar o impacto de um artigo em concreto, mas de
uma revista científica. Provavelmente a crítica mais frequente (mas não a
mais importante) feita ao FI é a impossibilidade de ser usada para
comparar revistas de diferentes áreas científicas – o número de citações
varia muito entre áreas científicas, por exemplo pelas diferenças de
produção científica mas também pela natureza própria das áreas e hábitos
de citação. Surgiram, por isso, outras métricas mais evoluídas como o
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) que tem em conta o
número total de citações de uma determinada área científica, o que
permite comparar revistas de áreas diferentes. Além de outras melhorias
face ao FI o SNIP é de acesso livre5 mas continua ser menos
conhecido. Já neste ano de 2015 a Thomson Reuters apresentou o percentil
de fator de impacto de uma revista, o qual normaliza o FI, permitindo a
comparação entre revistas de diferentes áreas. Existem várias outras
medidas de bibliometria, isto é, a análise estatística das publicações e
suas citações utilizadas em situações mais específicas.
Alem das medidas de bibliometria, a análise da disseminação e do
impacto que um determinado artigo tem pode hoje ser medido analisando as
referências ao artigo na Internet (webometrics). Em 2010, foi proposta uma medida mais geral do impacto dos artigos – a altmetrics,6 que além das citações incorpora o número de visualizações dos artigos, de downloads, de referências em bases de conhecimento, nos social média e média tradicionais.

Esta
medida pode ser aplicada a revistas, pessoas ou instituições, por
exemplo, concorrendo assim também o h‑index, uma métrica muito utilizada
para avaliar a produtividade e o impacto científico de um investigador
ou grupo.7 Ainda a propósito da disseminação do conhecimento
utilizando a Internet, são de referir ferramentas de comunicação
dirigida aos interesses de cada elemento de comunidades científicas e
que ajudam a conhecer os artigos que vão sendo publicados. São exemplos o
Research Gate (http://www.researchgate.net), Researcher ID http://www.researcherid.com/ ou Academia.edu https://www.academia.edu/.
Em muitos casos são também repositórios de autoarquivo dos artigos
completos pelos autores, permitindo aceder a artigos publicados em
revistas às quais não temos acesso livre.

Em resumo, o
artigo científico é o principal meio de disseminação dos avanços do
conhecimento médico. As rápidas alterações das últimas décadas tornaram
necessário aprender a pesquisar e a selecionar os artigos científicos.

O
fator de impacto foi uma das primeiras métricas utilizadas para medir o
impacto da publicação científica, é muito utilizado por ser fácil de
interpretar mas também fácil de usar de forma inapropriada. Estamos a
assistir à utilização crescente de outras medidas que nos ajudam a
compreender melhor a disseminação e o impacto de revistas e de artigos
científicos, mas também dos próprios autores e grupos/instituições.



REFERÊNCIAS

1.
Jacinto T, Morais A, Fonseca, J A. How to write a scientific paper –
Searching and Managing Biomedical information. Rev Port Pneumol
2011;17(4):190>‑4

2. The Thomson Reuters Impact factor. http://wokinfo.com/essays/impact‑factor/

3. Journal of citation reports. https://jcr.incites.thomsonreuters.com/

4. Fooladi M, Salehi H, Yunus MM, Farhadi M, Chadegani AA, Farhadi, H, et al. Does Criticisms Overcome the Praises of Journal Impact Factor?. Asian Social Science 2013; 9(5):176‑82

5. Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) Journal Indicators. http://www.journalindicators.com/

6. Priem J, Taraborelli D, Groth P, Neylon C, Altmetrics: A manifesto, 26 October 2010. http://altmetrics.org/manifesto/

7.
Jones T, Huggett S, Kamalski J. Finding a way through the scientific
literature: indexes and measures. World Neurosurg 2011; 76(1‑2):36‑8



Contacto:

João Fonseca

CUF‑Porto

Hospital e Instituto

Estrada da Circunvalação 14341

4100‑180 Porto

Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons
  Sociedade Portuguesa de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica

Rua Manuel Rodrigues da Silva, 7 C - escritório 1
1600-503 LisboaRevista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia - Para além do fator de impacto: O artigo científico e a disseminação de conhecimento em Medicina

Wednesday, 12 August 2015

The Impact of Customers’ Perception of CSR on Corporate Brand Loyalty: The Case of the Romanian Mobile Telecom Industry

The Impact of Customers’ Perception of CSR on Corporate Brand Loyalty: The Case of the Romanian Mobile Telecom Industry

Ovidiu-Ioan Moisescu




Central European Business Review, 2015, vol. 2015, issue 2, pages 21-30


Abstract:
The goal of the current research is to analyze the impact of customers’
perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on their loyalty
towards mobile telecommunication companies within the particular
socio-cultural and economic context of one of the largest national
markets of Central and Eastern Europe. In order to achieve this goal, a
survey was conducted among a sample of 1,464 mobile telecommunication
customers from the urban area of Romania. The findings point out the
fact that Romanian mobile telecom customers’ loyalty is not
significantly impacted by how they perceive their service suppliers’
responsibilities with regard to their employees or economic success,
while their perceptions of companies’ responsibilities towards
customers, public authorities, the environment, community development,
and sponsorship have a significant impact on corporate brand loyalty.
The findings have managerial implications in what concerns the
appropriate implementation and communication of CSR policies by mobile
telecommunication companies from the region in order for them to enhance
their customer’s loyalty.


Keywords: mobile telecommunication; customer loyalty; CSR (search for similar items in EconPapers)

JEL-codes: M31 (search for similar items in EconPapers)

Date: 2015

References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
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Virtual Teams: A Literature Review

Virtual Teams: A Literature Review



Nader Ale Ebrahim


University
of Malaya (UM) - Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture,
Faculty of Engineering; University of Malaya (UM) - Research Support
Unit, Centre of Research Services, Institute of Research Management and
Monitoring (IPPP)

Shamsuddin Ahmed


University of Malaya (UM)

Zahari Taha


University of Malaya (UM)




November 6, 2009


Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 2653-2669, 2009





Abstract:
    



In the competitive market, virtual teams represent a
growing response to the need for fasting time-to-market, low-cost and
rapid solutions to complex organizational problems. Virtual teams enable
organizations to pool the talents and expertise of employees and
non-employees by eliminating time and space barriers. Nowadays,
companies are heavily investing in virtual team to enhance their
performance and competitiveness. Despite virtual teams growing
prevalence, relatively little is known about this new form of team.
Hence the study offers an extensive literature review with definitions
of virtual teams and a structured analysis of the present body of
knowledge of virtual teams. First, we distinguish virtual teams from
conventional teams, different types of virtual teams to identify where
current knowledge applies. Second, we distinguish what is needed for
effective virtual team considering the people, process and technology
point of view and underlying characteristics of virtual teams and
challenges they entail. Finally, we have identified and extended 12 key
factors that need to be considered, and describes a methodology focused
on supporting virtual team working, with a new approach that has not
been specifically addressed in the existing literature and some guide
line for future research extracted.




Number of Pages in PDF File: 17



Keywords: Virtual team, Literature review, Effective virtual team






Open PDF in Browser
Download This Paper

Date posted: November 7, 2009
 

Suggested Citation

Ale
Ebrahim, Nader and Ahmed, Shamsuddin and Taha, Zahari, Virtual Teams: A
Literature Review (November 6, 2009). Australian Journal of Basic and
Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 2653-2669, 2009. Available at SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1501443
Virtual Teams: A Literature Review by Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha :: SSRN

Saturday, 8 August 2015

100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis | Current World Environment

100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis

Mehdi Rakhshandehroo1, Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof 1*, Nader Ale Ebrahim2, Ali Sharghi3, Roozbeh Arabi1


1faculty Of Design And Architecture, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
2Centre Of Research Services, Institute Of Research Management And Monitoring (Ippp), University Of Malaya, Malaysia
3Faculty Of Architecture And Urban Planning, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (Srttu), Teheran, Iran.
Correspondence Author Email: mrakhshandehroo@yahoo.com

Abstract:



Researchers have contributed significantly to the
development of the subject of urban green and open spaces (UGOS) in both
practical and fundamental aspects. As the number of citations indicates
a paper and author’s competency, the online web of science (ISI) was
browsed to identify the 100 most cited papers in the field of UGOS from
1980 to 2013. Papers were analyzed for authorship, journal sources,
publishers, institutions, countries, year of publication, categories,
and author keywords. The total number of citations was compared to the
average number of citations per year. From 1105 UGOS papers returned,
the maximum number of citations was 212. The top 100 most cited were
published from 1988 to 2011, with the majority in 2007. A remarkable
distinction was found in the comparison of total citations and average
citations per year.  As total linear trend indicates a significant
growth in influential articles, urban green and open spaces are a
developing subject in landscape and urban planning. This study gives an
insight into the readership of UGOS by highlighting key papers.

Keywords:



open space; green space; citations; landscape; urban planning; bibliometric





Copy the following to cite this article:

Rakhshandehroo M, Yusof M. J. M, Ebrahim N. A, Sharghi A, Arabi R.
100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric
Analysis. Curr World Environ 2015;10(2).


Copy the following to cite this URL:

Rakhshandehroo M, Yusof M. J. M, Ebrahim N. A, Sharghi A, Arabi R.
100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric
Analysis. Curr World Environ 2015;10(2). Available from: http://www.cwejournal.org/?p=12548


Introduction

In the context of urban studies, a great number of terms and
definitions refer to “urban green and open space” (UGOS) such as open
space, green space, public space, and urban greenery. Parks and public
gardens, as the most well-known UGOS, are associated with amenity green
spaces, having a high quality of landscape design and maintenance. On
the other hand, experimental green spaces are often referred to as green
feel, which users consciously or unconsciously experience within a
certain area. Therefore, the constitution of UGOS varies among different
groups of people, for example, between citizens and researchers, where
human influences convert natural areas into urban areas, as UGOS is a
reflection of human demand for greenery. They can vary from a simple
playing field to natural landscape or highly maintained environment and
are mostly provided with open access to public, although they may be
privately owned.

For the purpose of this study UGOS contains all types of public or
private open spaces in urban areas which are completely or mostly
covered with vegetation. Water bodies such as rivers, streams and lakes
are included but not all green areas outside urban borders. Furthermore,
these UGOS play a key role to improve the environment through landscape
enhancement, better air quality, and noise reduction, which result in
the enhancement of well being and quality of citizens’ life (1); (2).

As a type of biblometric method, citation indices trace the
references in a published paper (3). It exhibits how many times a
specific article has been cited in other articles  (4). The avenues to
evaluate citation tracking have been significantly raised in the past
years (3, 5). The frequency of citation of the publication is assumed to
display the impact of the  publication, but not essentially their
quality  (6). Evidently, citation count alone is not sufficient to
provide a complete criteria for judging scientific paper quality, in
particular when there exist numerous mechanisms to boost the citation of
a paper (7, 8).It should be added that rather than alternative metrics,
citations remain a main indicator of the importance of a research
output (9-11).

In this study, top-cited articles (12), classic papers (13), top
publications (14) or most frequently cited articles (15) in different
categories related to UGOS have been studied (16). For a long time now,
bibliometric studies have been widely applied to evaluate research
papers by measuring scientific preferences (for example, Saracevi &
Perk, 1973) and different aspects have been studied such as: annual
publication outputs, authors, language, categories, journals,
publishers, contributing institutes, and countries, and keywords (17).
This study not only evaluates the publication characteristics: language,
annual publications, countries, and institutional contributions, and
Web of Science categories, but also evaluates researchers’ trends and
emphasis by analyzing author keywords in UGOS topic. The result shows
the top-cited articles in the field of UGOS.

Methods and Materials

The Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) in 1962 launched the
Science Citation Index for scientific journals in a consistent and
systematic manner in order to measure citation numbers.  A paper quality
is best recognized by citation count (18). According to the number of
times a paper has been cited by other authors, the scientific impact of
that paper, author, or journal can be evaluated (19). In this
bibliometric research, we analyze citation indices to determine the key
papers in urban green and open spaces.

The data utilized in this research were derived from the online Web
of Science (the Tomson Reuters) on 29 August 2014. In order to find
proper keywords an email survey was conducted, with 30 emails sent to
experts as respondents and relevant keywords of UGOS investigated.
Collected data were analyzed qualitatively and extracted keywords
applied to search top articles from Web of Science core collection in
terms of topic (including four sections: title, abstract, author
keywords, and keyword plus) within the publication year limited to the
period from 1980 to 2013, indices: SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI,
CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, these keywords were searched: (“green space*”),
(greenspace*), (“urban space*” AND green*), (“urban space*” AND open),
(“open space*”), (“green infrastructure*” AND Urban), (“public space*”)
or (“urban green*” NOT greenhouse). A total of 9,058 publications met
the selection criteria. However, these publications contained some
documents not closely related to UGOS, therefore the result was refined
by Web of Science Categories:  Urban Studies. A total of 1,105 documents
were therefore determined.

Citation statistics produced for a time frame shorter than three
years may not be sufficiently stable (20, 21). Therefore, the documents
from 2012 to 2014 were put aside. Furthermore, since the target of the
data collection is the 100 most-cited articles most relevant to UGOS
and, all 1105 documents were arranged according citations, and their
abstracts studied. From 139 first documents, 39 which were not specific
to UGOS were excluded, to reach 100 most cited articles that were
analyzed statistically by Microsoft Excel. The details of the data
collection process are illustrated in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Data collection process to search UGOS related researches  Figure 1: Data collection process to search UGOS related researches



Click here to View figure


Figure 2: Number of papers per year  Figure 2: Number of papers per year 



Click here to View figure


Results and Discussion

Paper and authors’ citations

Table 1, presents the list of 100 most-cited papers in urban green
and open spaces that give an idea of readership. The paper by Chiesura
(22), which explains the role of urban parks in a sustainable city,
appears to be the most important, with a total of 212 citations. The
nearest competitor is a literature review (23) about promoting the
ecosystem and human health by using green infrastructure in urban areas,
with a total of 183 citations. Besides that, the first and third top
cited articles are review papers. These results are on the corresponding
general belief that review articles had the highest number of citations
(24, 25).

Table 1: Top 100 article in urban green and open spaces (UGOS)

R First Author No. R First Author No. R First Author No.
1 Chiesura, 2004 212 35 Jim, 2003 61 66 Eliasson,  2007 41
2 Tzoulas, 2007 183 36 Barbosa, 2007 58 66 Fabos, 2004 41
3 Burgess, 1988 140 36 Colding, 2007 58 66 Jorgensen, 2002 41
4 Luttik, 2000 119 36 Breuste, 2004 58 71 Grahn, 2010 40
5 Valentine, 1996 118 36 Van, 2003 58 72 Sandstrom, 2006 38
6 Ruddick, 1996 108 40 Kong, 2006 57 72 Khakee, 2006 38
7 Pauleit,  2005 101 40 Cook, 2002 57 72 Breffle, 1998 38
8 Tratalos, 2007 98 42 James, 2009 55 75 Daniels, 1991 37
9 Whitford,  2001 97 42 Chang,  2007 55 76 Comber, 2008 36
10 Bengston, 2004 95 44 Carles, 1999 54 77 Troy, 2008 35
11 Tyrvainen, 2007 85 45 Gunnarsson  2007 53 77 Tajima, 2003 35
11 Tyrvainen, 1997 85 45 Walsh, 2007 53 77 Linehan, 1995 35
13 Bowler, 2010 80 45 Shafer, 2000 53 80 Balram, 2005 34
14 Thompson, 2002 79 45 Southworth, 1997 53 80 Daniels, 2005 34
15 Anderson, 2006 78 49 Sousa, 2003 52 80 Arendt, 2004 34
15 Jackson, 2003 78 50 Jim, 2004 51 80 Bondi, 1998 34
15 Tyrvainen, 1998 78 51 Jim, 2006a 50 84 Lyytimaki, 2009 32
18 Yeoh, 1998 77 52 Gill, 2008 49 84 Maruani, 2007 32
19 Atkinson, 2003 76 53 Shultz, 2001 48 86 Dobbs, 2011 31
19 Zerbe, 2003 76 54 Banerjee, 2001 47 87 Nagendra, 2010 30
21 Morancho, 2003 74 55 Flores, 1998 46 87 Gordon, 2009 30
22 Sandstrom, 2006 73 56 Allen, 2006 45 87 Nordh, 2009 30
22 Wolch, 2005 73 56 Ozguner, 2006 45 87 Haire, 2000 30
24 Mathieu, 2007 72 58 Hamin, 2009 44 91 Jorgensen, 2007 29
24 Heynen, 2006 72 58 Gobster, 2004 44 91 Zhang, 2006 29
26 Kong, 2007 70 58 Goss, 1996 44 93 Zhang & Wang, 2006 28
27 Matsuoka, 2008 68 61 (Buijs, 2009) 43 93 Walmsley, 2006 28
28 Jim, 2006b 66 61 (Lafortezza, 2009) 43 93 Kim, 2005 28
28 Acharya, 2001 66 61 (Julier, 2005) 43 93 Kuhn, 2003 28
28 Soule, 1991 66 61 (Mortberg, 2000) 43 93 Schmelzkopf, 200 28
31 Li, 2005 65 65 (Varsanyi, 2008) 42 93 Johnston, 1997 28
32 Irwin, 2004 64 66 (Jim, 2009) 41 99 Schipperijn, 2010 27
32 Hess, 2002 64 66 (Schilling, 2008) 41 99 Loukaitousideris, 1995 27
34 Gobster, 2001 62


The top 100 papers were published between 1988 and 2011 (Fig 2).
During this period the number of papers increased consistently from 1 to
5. This number remained unchanged between 2000 and 2002. The trend is
unsteady until the two years of 2006 and 2007 which showed the highest
number of top-cited papers with 11 and 13 instances. The citation rate
gradually decreased over the years that followed. This reduction over
the last few years would seem logical  because citation of scientific
papers normally starts one or two years after publication and reaches
peak after about 10 years (26). All in all, total linear trend indicates
an increasing consideration for UGOS.

Table 2 ranks the authors according the total citations they have
received. It also demonstrates the two top cited articles for each
author.  Jim, CY with 269 citations is placed first, followed by
Tyrvainen, L with 248 and after him Ennos, AR obtained with 247
citations.

While our top 100 papers have 226 authors, only 20 authors wrote more
than one article (see Table 3). Jim, CY is the highest ranked with five
publications and a total of 269 citations which contain one paper with
single author and four papers as first author. Tyrvainen, L; Pauleit, S;
Chen, WY; Ennos, R and Handley, JF each contributed three papers.
According to Table 2, single authors (Jim, CY; Tyrvainen, L and Kong,
FH) published only three articles.

Table 2: The first 10 authors with the most citations

Rank Author Number of publications Total citations First article citations Second article citations
1 Jim, CY 5 269 66 61
2 Tyrvainen, L 3 248 85 85
3  Ennos, AR 3 247 101 97
4  Niemela, J 2 238 183 55
5  Hitchmough, J 2 238 183 55
6 Chiesura, A 1 212 212 0
7 Jorgensen, A 2 201 97 55
8  Chen, WY 3 157 66 50
9  Davies, RG 2 156 98 58
10  Fuller, RA 2 156 98 58


Table 3: Authors with 2 publications and more

Rank Author Number of publications Single Author First Author Collaborative Authors
1 Jim, CY 5 1 4 4
2 Tyrvainen, L 3 1 2 2
3  Pauleit, S 3 __ 1 2
4  Chen, WY 3 __ __ 3
4  Ennos, R 3 __ __ 3
4  Handley, JF 3 __ __ 3
7 Gobster, PH 2 1 1 1
8 Kong, FH 2 __ 2 2
8 Jorgensen, A 2 __ 2 2
8 Sandstrom, UG 2 __ 2 2
11  Angelstam, P 2 __ __ 2
11  Niemela, J 2 __ __ 2
11  Zipperer, WC 2 __ __ 2
11  Davies, RG 2 __ __ 2
11  Nakagoshi, N 2 __ __ 2
11  Fuller, RA 2 __ __ 2
11  Gaston, KJ 2 __ __ 2
11  Hitchmough, J 2 __ __ 2
11  Korpela, K 2 __ __ 2
11  Stigsdotter, UK 2 __ __ 2


Journal Sources and Publishers

Results showed that these papers were published in 16 journals. The most popular journal was Landscape and Urban Planning
with a total of 62 citations. This is more than nine times the citation
number of its nearest competitor. Seven papers were published in the
journal of Urban Geography and six in both journals of J AM Planning Assoc.
Total citations and also impact factor of each journal were extracted
from the website of the Journal Citation Report on 5/10/2014 and
presented in Table 4. The journal impact factor is one of the most
important measures that indicate the journal’s significance within the
related fields (27).The impact factor was first introduced  by Garfield
and Sher (1963) and has been widely applied to evaluate and rank
journals (17). According to Table 4, the average impact factor is 1.46
which indicates the majority of these papers were published in the
journals with high impact factors. Therefore, in order to attain a high
number of citations, it is essential to publish papers in the English
language as it appears to be a unique literary language used in UGOS and
also to choose a high impact factor journal, which is advanced in
science and continued development (28).

Table 5  shows the publishers of 100 top articles. From all of the publishers, Elsevier Science BV individually published 64% of papers and the other 15 publishers only contributed to 36% of papers.

Table 4: Journal source

Journal Source Number of Papers Rank Total Citations Impact Factor
Landscape and urban planning 62 1 6203 2.606
Urban geography 7 2 923 1.746
Journal of the American planning association 6 3 1725 1.489
URBAN studies 6 3 4896 1.33
URBAN FORESTRY & URBAN greening 5 5 821 2.133
Journal of real estate finance and economics 2 6 1103 0.697
REGIONAL SCIENCE AND URBAN economics 2 6 1579 0.971
Cities 2 6 1296 1.836
Journal of urban economics 1 9 3094 1.888
HOUSING studies 1 9 1038 0.895
URBAN AFFAIRS review 1 9 1019 1.293
Journal of urban technology 1 9 155 0.729
HABITAT international 1 9 1051 1.577
Journal of planning education and research 1 9 815 1.383
Journal of planning literature 1 9 408 1.522
Journal of urban affairs 1 9 673 1.298


Table 5: Publishers

Rank Publisher Number of Papers
1 ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV 64
2 V H WINSTON & SON INC 6
3 ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG 5
4 AMER PLANNING ASSOC 4
4 CARFAX PUBL CO 4
6 ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD 2
6 ROUTLEDGE TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD 2
6 SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC 2
6 ELSEVIER SCI LTD 2
6 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL 2
6 AMER PLANNING ASSN 2
12 ASSOC COLLEGIATE SCH PLANNING 1
12 PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD 1
12 CARFAX PUBLISHING 1
12 ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE 1
12 BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS 1


Countries and Institutes

The result shows that most of the papers originated from 22
countries, with the majority originating from the USA [37] followed by
UK [19]. Table 6 shows the countries that have at least two papers.
Previous authors have hypothesized that American authors are biased
toward locally published papers when citing references (29) which may
possibly explain our findings. If continents are analyzed, 40 papers
come from Europe, 39 from North America and 21 from Asia Pacific (Table
6).

Table 6: Number of publication of countries which have two or more publications

Country Number of publications Rank
USA 37 1
UK 19 2
Sweden 7 3
China 7 3
Finland 4 5
Australia 3 6
Netherlands 3 6
Denmark 2 8
Canada 2 8
Spain 2 8
Germany 2 8
Japan 2 8


The result also shows that from 80 universities and institutions that
published top papers, 68 have merely a single paper and the others
contributed two papers or more as shown in Table 7. University of
Sheffield and University of Hong Kong are the most fruitful with five
papers followed by US Forest Serv. and University of Massachusetts with
three papers.

Table 7:  Number of publication of institute which have two or more publications

Rank University Number of publications
1 Univ Sheffield 5
1 Univ Hong Kong 5
3 Us Forest Serv 3
3 Univ Massachusetts 3
5 Univ Manchester 2
5 Hiroshima Univ 2
5 Univ Salford 2
5 Univ Colorado 2
5 Arizona State Univ 2
5 Univ So Calif 2
5 Univ Joensuu 2
5 Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr 2


Document Types and Categories

The distribution of document types identified by ISI was analyzed.
These papers consist of four document types, and articles are dominant
with 83 documents, followed by review articles (9); Proceedings Papers
[7] and editorial materials [1]. The distribution related to the
language of the articles also was analyzed and all these papers are
published in English (Table 7).

Regarding Web of Science categories (Table 8) all papers are
categorized under urban studies because of the refinement during data
collection. Environmental studies [77] and geography [69] are in the
second and third ranks. This result indicates most papers are considered
under two or more categories.

Table 8: Web of science categories 

Rank Web of Science categories Number of papers
1 Urban Studies 100
2 Environmental Studies 77
3 Geography 69
4 Ecology 62
4 Geography, Physical 62
6 Planning & Development 9
7 Forestry 5
7 Economics 5
7 Plant Sciences 5
10 Business, Finance 2


Author keyword

In recent years, bibliometric analysis of author keywords has been
able to provide a reasonably sophisticated picture of the papers’
subjects (17). In order to illuminate research trends, frequency of
author keywords should be analyzed quantitatively (table 9). Keywords
according to the authors’ views were used not more than 19 times (green
space*) which indicated that UGOS papers have involved a wide range of
research focuses and diverse scientific literature. Except the author’s
keywords “green space”, “open space” and “urban green space” related to
the searching keywords, three most frequently applied author keywords
are: “urban planning”[10], “urban park*”[6] and “land use”[6]. On the
other hand, all of these key words are collocations of two or three
words, therefore they have been separated and analyzed for the second
round and this time the frequency of the first key word was urban [71].

Table 9: The most frequently used author keywords

No Keywords Number of repetitions Rank Separated Keywords Number of repetitions Rank
1 green space* 19 1 urban 71 1
2 urban planning 10 2 planning 32 2
3 open space* 7 3 green 31 3
4 urban park* 6 4 space* 30 4
5 urban green space* 6 4 landscape 20 5
6 land use 6 4 City* 20 5
7 urban forest 5 7 land 17 7
8 urban ecology 4 8 environment* 16 8
9 public health 4 8 ecology* 16 8
10 compact city 3 10 value* 15 10
11 environmental psychology 3 10 nature* 11 11
12 Green Infrastructure 3 10 ecosystem* 11 11
13 urban forestry 3 10 conservation 10 13
14 Urban biodiversity 3 10 open 9 14
15 ecosystem services 3 10 hedonic 9 14
16 landscape ecology 3 10 greenway* 9 14
17 landscape metrics 3 10 public 8 17
18 Contingent valuation 3 10 Design 8 17
19 park* 8 17


Study Limitation

It should be noted that this study has some methodological
limitations. Firstly, we applied online ISI web of knowledge, so the
papers not indexed in this database are ignored. Secondly, all journals
have specific approaches to reject or accept submitted manuscripts;
therefore the particular journals which have stricter selection criteria
may affect the quality of their publications. That is why 62% of 100
top cited articles have been found in one article. Thirdly, citation
count might encounter some problems such as authors’ preference for
self-citation, or cite free full access articles, review papers, well
known authors, papers by colleagues as well as cite papers from the
journal they are going to submit their work to. Finally, publication
year influences citation index and the number of citations for each
paper; therefore recent papers do not have sufficient time to reach a
high citation rate in comparison with older ones.

Table 10: Comparison of average number of citations per year and total citation

Document Title Year Published Total citations citation per year Rank for total citations Rank for citation per year
Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using green infrastructure: a literature review. 2007 183 26.14 2 1
The role of urban parks for a sustainable city. 2004 212 21.20 1 2
Urban greening to cool town and cities: a systematic review of the empirical evidence. 2010 80 20.00 13 3
Urban form, biodiversity potential and ecosystem services 2007 98 14.00 8 4
Tools for mapping social values of urban woodlands and green areas 2007 85 12.14 11 5
People needs in the urban landscape: Analysis of Landscape and Urban Planning contributions 2008 68 11.33 27 6
Modeling the environmental impacts  of urban land use and land cover change – a study in Merseyside, UK 2005 101 11.22 7 7
Toward an integrated understanding of green space in European built environment. 2009 55 11.00 42 8
A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and good indicators. 2011 31 10.33 86 9
Mapping private gardens in urban areas using object-oriented techniques and very high-resolution satellite imagery. 2007 72 10.29 24 10


Conclusion

This study can be considered the first report on the top cited papers
in UGOS. The priority of the papers was arranged according to the
citations they have received. Total citations were extracted from Web of Science Core Collection Times Cited Count
but analyzing merely total citation is a potential flaw as it gives a
bias to the older papers because during a longer time they would have
accumulated a high number of citations which may be of less significance
and influence than a more recent paper. Therefore, the average number
of citations per year is used as a yardstick against which to reflect
the importance of articles.

A comparison was made between the total number of citations and the
average number of citations per year, of the top 10 articles (Table 10)
emerging 42 and 86 ranking of total citations, between top 10 high ranks
of average citation per year indicates how different these two criteria
can be. From a total of 1,105 UGOS papers returned using our methods,
the paper with the maximum number of average citations per year [26.14]
was  written by Tzoulas (23), which has the second highest number of
total citations [183]. The second highest number of average citations
per year is the paper written by Chiesura (22), which achieved first
rank with a total citation of 212.

Conflict of Interest

We confirm that no authorities have any conflict of interest in the
process of producing this paper. No authors have a personal relationship
with other organizations or people that could influence this research
inappropriately and also there has not been any financial benefit
attached to this paper.

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100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis | Current World Environment

Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Papers by Nader Ale Ebrahim:


Year  ↓Title  ↓Cited  ↓
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Citation profile for Nader Ale Ebrahim